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Schizophrenia Is Actually Eight Distinct Genetic Disorders:

New research published in the American Journal of Psychiatry suggests that schizophrenia is not a single disease, but rather a group of eight genetically distinct disorders, each of them with its own set of symptoms. The finding could result in improved diagnosis and treatment, while also shedding light on how genes work together to cause complex disorders.
Schizophrenia is classified as a psychotic disorder, one characterized by an inability to discern what is real and not real, to think clearly, have normal emotional responses, and act normally in social situations. As Elyn Saks told us last year, “it’s a waking nightmare, where you have all the bizarre images, the terrible things happening, and the utter terror — only with a nightmare you open your eyes and it goes away. No such luck with a psychotic episode.”
Scientists aren’t entirely sure what causes it, nor does it manifest identically in all people who have it (leading to the broader diagnosis of being on the ‘schizophrenia spectrum’). But links have been made to genetics, social factors (including early development), and neurobiology. The heritability link looks to be particularly promising, however; about 80% of the risk for schizophrenia is genetic. Yet scientists have struggled to identify which genes are responsible for the condition.
But a novel approach to analyzing genetic influences on more than 4,000 people with schizophrenia has finally allowed researchers to identify distinct gene clusters that contribute to eight different classes of schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia Is Actually Eight Distinct Genetic Disorders:

New research published in the American Journal of Psychiatry suggests that schizophrenia is not a single disease, but rather a group of eight genetically distinct disorders, each of them with its own set of symptoms. The finding could result in improved diagnosis and treatment, while also shedding light on how genes work together to cause complex disorders.

Schizophrenia is classified as a psychotic disorder, one characterized by an inability to discern what is real and not real, to think clearly, have normal emotional responses, and act normally in social situations. As Elyn Saks told us last year, “it’s a waking nightmare, where you have all the bizarre images, the terrible things happening, and the utter terror — only with a nightmare you open your eyes and it goes away. No such luck with a psychotic episode.”

Scientists aren’t entirely sure what causes it, nor does it manifest identically in all people who have it (leading to the broader diagnosis of being on the ‘schizophrenia spectrum’). But links have been made to genetics, social factors (including early development), and neurobiology. The heritability link looks to be particularly promising, however; about 80% of the risk for schizophrenia is genetic. Yet scientists have struggled to identify which genes are responsible for the condition.

But a novel approach to analyzing genetic influences on more than 4,000 people with schizophrenia has finally allowed researchers to identify distinct gene clusters that contribute to eight different classes of schizophrenia.

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"Wherever you are it is your own friends who make your world."

William James (via quotetroll)

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"The similarity between Van Gogh, Haiku poetry, and good photography is the concern for mortality. That things are very fleeting, that there are people who are more sensitive to death than others. The threat of time is of great concern to them. And the camera is a very appropriate instrument for many."

Dennis Stock (via phenomenaaa)

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fatalbellman:

Illustration for Edward Lear’s The Owl & The Pussycat by William Foster, 1889

fatalbellman:

Illustration for Edward Lear’s The Owl & The Pussycat by William Foster, 1889

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(Source: warrenellis)

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"I sit before flowers

hoping they will train me in the art 
of opening up.


I stand on mountain tops believing 
that avalanches will teach me to let go.


I know 
nothing,


but I am here to learn."

— Shane Koyczan (via veganlove)

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I may never be able to go outside without pain or fear — but, even for just going on a quick errand with my sister, I surprised myself by how close I came to that today.

I may never be able to go outside without pain or fear — but, even for just going on a quick errand with my sister, I surprised myself by how close I came to that today.

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"If you want to learn what someone fears losing, watch what they photograph."

— Unknown  (via xforgetme)

(Source: foreverthecuriousone, via xkot)

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hermionejg:

mean reds / the quietness and the proud look of it

hermionejg:

mean reds / the quietness and the proud look of it

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